Tag Archives: return migration

Return migration of nurses: A concept analysis

Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development
Year : 2018, Volume : 9, Issue : 9
First page : ( 199) Last page : ( 203)
Print ISSN : 0976-0245. Online ISSN : 0976-5506.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0976-5506.2018.00994.4

Return migration of nurses: A concept analysis

Efendi Ferry1, Kurniati Anna2, Savage Eileen3, Nursalam Nursalam4, Yusuf Ah.5, Kusnanto Kusnanto5
1Lecturer, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

2Health planner specialist, Center for Planning and Management of Human Resources for Health, BPPSDMK, Ministry of Health, Indonesia

3Professor, School of Nursing, University College Cork, Ireland

4Professor Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

5Lecturer, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Online published on 25 September, 2018.



Return migration is a complex, challenging phenomenon and to date it remains a concept that is not well understood. A concept analysis would help to clarify what is meant by return migration. This paper aims to report on an analysis of the concept of return migration of nurses.


Concept analysis using the Walker and Avant approach.

Data Sources

Google Scholar, Pubmed, EBSCO, JSTOR and Web of Science databases were searched without a timeframe. Twenty-one articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included.


This study employs eight steps of Walker and Avant’s method to conduct the concept analysis.


Return migration of nurses can be defined by five attributes: the motivation and decisions of migrant nurse, return as human right, resource mobilisation, reintegration and return itineraries. Antecedents of return migration include the economic, social, geographical, political, family and life cycle that comprise the cause and effect framework. With regards to return migration, the consequences are beneficial or detrimental depend on the point of view migrant nurses, source country, receiving country, nursing profession and country health system. Empirical referents have been identified and support potential area to undertake a research on return migration.


This concept analysis has clarified current understandings and enhance the clarity of return migration concept. It recognises the centrality of return as a component in migration stage that needs a comprehensive approach.

full-text: http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijphrd&volume=9&issue=9&article=037

A deskilling and challenging journey: the lived experience of Indonesian nurse returnees

Author information

Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Center for Planning and Management of Human Resources for Health, The Board for Development and Empowerment of Human Resources for Health (BPPSDMK), Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Department of Nursing, Institute of Gerontology, Institute of Allied Health Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Faculty of Nursing, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies, Kyushu University, Japan.



To illuminate the lived experiences of Indonesian nurses who previously worked as caregivers in Japanese residential care facilities, by exploring the journey of becoming returnees.


The creation of bilateral agreements between Indonesia and Japan has facilitated the movement of Indonesian nurses to work as caregivers in Japan since 2008. While this decision raised concerns with regard to the degradation of nursing skills, little is known about this issue from the perspective of nurse returnees and how the experience affects their life.


A hermeneutic phenomenological method was employed for this study. A purposive sample of 15 Indonesian nurse returnees participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in four of Indonesia’s provinces between August and October 2015. Data were analysed thematically, supported by QSR NVIVO 10 software.


Four key themes emerged from the data analysis: (i) returning home; (ii) going back to zero; (iii) walking through a difficult journey; and (iv) overcoming barriers. These findings described the lived experiences of nurse returnees when they got back to the country of origin.


Indonesian nurse returnees experienced deskilling and struggled to re-enter the nursing profession or to find other non-nursing jobs. The significant impact of this migration on individual nurses with regard to maximizing the benefits of return migration deserves further investigation.


The Indonesian government, jointly with other stakeholders, should develop a brain gain strategy to align returnees’ expertise with the needs of the national labour market. The public-private partnership should be strengthened to utilize returnees in healthcare services.


Caregiver; Deskilling; Indonesian Nurse; Japan; Phenomenology; Return Migration

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IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration