Research centre REACH

Factors influencing the intention of Indonesian nursing students to work in rural areas

  1. Amanatul Firdaus1
  2. Ferry Efendi1,2
  3. Setho Hadisuyatmana1,2
  4. Gading Ekapuja Aurizki1 and
  5. Khatijah Lim Abdullah3

Author affiliations


The aim of this study was to analyse the factors associated with the intention of Indonesian nursing students to work in rural areas. This was a cross-sectional study. The instrument used was a self-developed questionnaire consisting of 13 questions. The data were analysed using the ?2statistics test and binary logistic regression with a level of significance <0.05. The study was conducted at a public nursing school located in urban Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, in December 2017. A total of 714 nursing students from four different programmes were involved. This study found that almost 60% of nursing students were reluctant to work in rural areas. Of the three variables which were significant in the ?2 analysis, only two were significant following the logistic regression test, namely the class programmes of undergraduate regulars (OR=2.274; 95% CI 1.326 to 3.900), profession regulars (OR=2.262; 95% CI 1.110 to 4.607) and rural place of origin (OR=1.405; 95% CI 1.036 to 1.906). The education programme and place of origin were associated with the intention of nursing students to work in rural areas. Therefore, the recruitment of prospective nurses should consider these factors by considering the local context.

Concept analysis of nurse retention

Ferry Efendi RN, MSc, PhDAnna Kurniati SKM, MA, PhDAngeline Bushy RN, PhD, FAANJoko Gunawan RN


Nurse retention is widely acknowledged as a crucial international workforce issue, yet the concept remains ambiguous. This study focuses on a concept analysis in an effort to clarify the attributes of nurse retention, including its antecedents and consequences. The Walker and Avant approach was applied to analyze the concept of nurse retention. Four key attributes of nurse retention were identified in the analysis, specifically motivation, intention, and individual decision; strategy and intervention; geographic context; and attachment to work. Antecedents of nurse retention included the healthcare system at the macro level, the health care facility, health personnel, and living conditions. Retention has consequences for individual nurses, the healthcare organization, and the overall health system. Our concept analysis provides clarification to better understand nurse retention along with its implications for the healthcare workforce. The analysis further emphasizes the importance of retention as a comprehensive priority issue for human resources when recruiting and maintaining the nursing workforce internationally.

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