Decreasing Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity using Date-seed (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Steeping in Rats

Saryono, S., Sumeru, A., Proverawati, A., & Efendi, F. (2018). Decreasing Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity using Date-seed (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Steeping in Rats. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences10(2), 139-145.


Many toxic compounds in foods cause liver damage and disturbance of bodily function. Inflammation will precede liver damage as an initial response to poisoning. The inflammatory response depends heavily on the strength of the body’s immune system. Many foods, drugs, and other compounds can decrease the immune system, but few serve as immunostimulants. This study aims to prove the decreasing of carbon tetrachloride toxicity using date-seed (Phoenix dactylifera L.) steeping to improve rat immunity.


This was an experiment with pre- and posttest with a control group design. Wistar white rats were grouped into 6 groups, healthy control (HC), negative control (NC), positive control (PC), treatment dose 1 g/ kg (T1), treatment dose 3 g/kg (T3), and treatment dose 5 g/kg (T5). All of the groups were induced by CCL4 before treatment except the HC group. The observed data were interleukin-6 (IL-6), lymphocyte count, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data from the groups were compared with an ANOVA test and followed by a post hoc test if a significant result was found.


The results showed that there were significant differences between IL-6, lymphocyte count, and CRP between HC and other groups that CCL4-induced. After the delivery of date-seed steeping, levels of IL-6 and CRP decreased, and the lymphocyte count increased significantly. The group with the 5 g/kg treatment dose was the most effective group for inhibiting the increase of IL-6 and CRP, but a dose of 3 g/kg was the most effective to increase lymphocyte count.


Date-seed steeping suppresses pro-inflammation mediators; it has a potency which improves cytokine pro-inflammation by inhibiting the inflammation process. Thus, date seed can be used as a cheap source of anti-inflammation that can be considered as a health opportunity for developing countries.


Carbon tetrachloride Anti-inflammation Date seed IL-6 CRP Lymphocyte count 

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Peer Group Support Increase Psychological Responses Changes from Public Servant in Retirement Preparation Phase

Citation for this: Nursalam, Efendi F, Fata U H. 2008. Peer Group Support Increase Psychological Responses Changes from Public Servant in Retirement Preparation Phase. Jurnal Ners

Introduction :Retirement is separation process of individual from their work that is being paid from their position or occupation. Retirement may change psychological responses. The aimed of this study was to analyze the influence of peer group support in psychological responses changes from public servant in retirement preparation phase. Method : This study was used an quasy experimental pre-post test purposive sampling design. Population were 18 respondents who will retire on 2009 and 2010 in Mardiwaluyo General Hospital Blitar. Sample were 16 respondents divided into 8 respondents each for treatment and control group. The independent variable was peer group support and dependent variable was psychological responses. Data were collected by using questionnaire before and after peer group support intervention. Data then analyzed by using Mann Whitney U Test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance level ??0.05. Result: The result showed that peer group support didn’t have an influenced in denial respons (p=0.301), anger respons (p=0.317), bargaining respons (p=0.079) and depression respons (p=0.300). Otherwise peer group support have an influenced in acceptance respons (p=0.049). Discussion: The result of this study has enlightened the important of retirement preparation phase to provide positive psychological responses. Further studies are recommended to extend this recearch with considering biological and spiritual responses.
Keywords: peer group support, retire, psychological responses