According to Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between Indonesia and Japanese governments, Japanese government plans to recruit Indonesian nurses and caregivers to fulfill the demand of those positions at the hospital and health centers. However, to be a qualified worker in Japan, one has to pass a national examination that is conducted by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare for a license of a registered nurse within 3 or 4 years of working as a nurse or caregivers, respectively. Having considered that matter, a comparative study of the background of educational systems in Indonesia and Japan is discussed in this paper, with particular reference to the Diploma 3 nursing program.
There is no specific difference between Indonesian and Japanese nursing educational systems. However, current health condition of the countries remains as the focus of the curriculums where Indonesian nursing education is focusing on communicable disease and surgery nursing, whereas Japanese is focusing on gerontology and chronic disease nursing. In case of qualification method, Japanese nurses should undertake national board examination to be a qualified nurse. On the other hand, there is no national board examination for Indonesian nurses.

Keywords: nursing educational system, Indonesia, Japan

Author(s): Susiana Nugraha1, Mika Tanaka2, Ferry Efendi3 Continue reading A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NURSING EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN INDONESIA AND JAPAN


Author: Ferry Efendi1, Lan Thi Ngoc Dang2, Nursalam1, Eka Misbahatul M.Has1
1 Faculty of Nursing
Airlangga University Indonesia
2Vietnam Development Information Center,
Global Development Learning Network Vietnam
Virtual Mobility means the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to obtain the same benefits as one would have with physical mobility but without the need to travel. Nursing student exchange programs are an apparent trend in internationalizations context and means for nursing program to respond to the challenge of developing a global perspective in nursing. These programs can use either physical, virtual, or both, mobility. Apart from the contemporary face to face programs, nowadays the concept of virtual mobility has been introduced and applied by various educational institutions. Enabled by the advances of information and communication technologies, more cooperation between institutions internationally has been created. Virtual mobility can offer a valuable opportunity for nursing students to take part in courses at other universities without having to leave their home countries. Moreover, a blended mobility can be used in which virtual interaction will be helpful in preparing and following up physical mobility to enrich the latter and make it even more effective and fruitful. After discussing the forms of inter-university exchange students, the paper proposes the types of virtual mobility, advantages and future impacts on the nursing education system of developing countries. A virtual course or seminar, a whole virtual study programme, virtual internship and virtual support activities in physical exchange could be applied as a part of virtual mobility forms. Pilot program using these methods needs to be devised and tested to enhance the development of nursing education.
Keywords— nursing student exchange, virtual mobility


Virtual mobility has pedagogical advantages and enriches the more traditional learning activities in nursing education. The learning process can be improved through interactive and collaborative learning. It integrates students in a collaborative learning environment while keeping the benefits of a structured presence in a university campus.
Furthermore, as indicated above, virtual mobility creates opportunities for those students unable to participate in a traditional class. Given the scarcity of mobility grants, it provides an affordable opportunity for more higher education students than physical mobility, from which only a small minority of students are presently able to benefit.
Today most of the virtual mobility occurs with students from developing countries taking courses in more advanced countries such as Europe, Australia and North America. Although, it may improve the quality of developing countries’ educational institutions, it deprives students in the more developed countries from the benefits of expanding their knowledge of nursing and nursing education and using it to expand their student’s perspectives.
Because there are more new options for educational programs, students usually find international programs more attractive. Consequently, domestic universities are losing their students, which also means losing opportunities to diversify training specializations and further their delivery capacity. In fact, some universities have initiated a new cooperation such as the ‘sandwich’ program or double degree program for example. In these programs, students will attend the first part of their course in their home country through online or face to face courses before finishing their program in an international university. Continue reading THE ADVANTAGE AND FUTURE IMPACT OF VIRTUAL MOBILITY IN NURSING EDUCATION